ARTS444 Advanced Black & White Photography, Romeo Di Loreto, Summer II 2019 | SACI College of Art & Design Florence

ARTS444 Advanced Black & White Photography, Romeo Di Loreto, Summer II 2019

PHOTOGRAPH > noun a permanent record of an image that has been produced on photosensitive film or paper by the process of photography.
> Verb (photographed, Photographing) tra & intr to take a photograph of (a person, thing, etc).

PHOTOGRAPHY > noun the process of making a permanent record of an image on light-sensitive film or some other sensitized material using visible light, X-ray or some other form of radiant energy.

PHOTOGRAPHIC > adj (1) relating to or similar to photographs or photography. (2) Said of memory: retaining images in exact detail. Photographically adverb.

Photography is one of the most exciting forms of image making. Invented in the 1820’s to 1840’s, it still remains a mystery for whomever uses it. For me it is still magic. Mistakes can easily become tools for beautiful image making. Photography’s weakness can even be its greatest strength; one can discover this very early or it can take years and years. Making photographs means making thousands of decisions almost instantly. To bring all the technical limitations and the artistic possibilities together into a single, well-seen and rendered photograph. A picture which conveys information and emotion is a juggling act that requires years of training to master.

What do I mean “to master”?

Simply not to think about what you are doing, but to respond instantly. It means to work intuitively, with feeling rather than with intellect. (I did not say intelligence.) Thinking about your photography is important, especially during the learning stages, but as you progress you will find you are doing less and less “thinking” and more and more responding.

A guitarist does not think of the individual notes, but is feeling the music. The hands and fingers are responding to the music. It is a physical, emotional and feeling activity. Should the artist “think” about what he or she is doing, mistakes flood in, the musician stumbles, misses notes and music fails. The same thing happens when we make photographs. We are musicians. Our instruments are the cameras and shutters, lenses and apertures, the film we select, the chemistry we use to bring out the nuances of light and shadow in our negatives and prints. Eventually you will be able to work without thinking, you will work intuitively.

Learning to work intuitively will take time. Within the first year, you will have found you have mastered many of the technical elements of photography and no longer have to think about them. This class is meant to help you along that path of mastery. However, the path is a long one, and in that there is joy. Learning is more important than arriving, the voyage more wonderful than the destination. Most successful artists and photographers will tell you it will take ten years for you to master all the elements and to begin to make your own statement. This may be frustrating news for the novice, but take heart. Photography is fun almost every step of the way. There will be periods of pain, disappointment, frustration, depression and even anger as you struggle to learn all the elements. Do not be discouraged, be overjoyed that you have ten great years to look forward to, to grow in, to experiment, to learn and to develop. It is a magical time, so use it wisely. Learn each of the steps well, and then proceed to the next. Do not rush. There are no short cuts, no quick solutions, no secrets, other than to work very hard.


Course Content & Objectives

This course is designed for the advanced level and for advanced students.

Necessary, prerequisites: Introductory Photography and Intermediate Photography in black and white at college or university levels. If one of the prerequisites has NOT BEEN FILLED, the student must present a coherent, recent portfolio and must have an interview (in person, through telephone or via e–mail) with the instructor teaching the course. (An entry test may be given prior to acceptance to evaluate the student's level.)

Special emphasis will be placed upon aesthetic and visual concerns as well as craftsmanship and the understanding of black and white photography at the advanced level. The students enrolled in this class must have a full understanding of the following course basics: Advanced understanding and operation of the camera, the lens, film types, film exposure, black and white film development, the negative, black and white print making, toning, and the final re-touching (all course material covered in Intermediate Photography).

This course and term is divided in two sections:

1. The first half of the term will consist of a review of materials covered at intermediate level - proper processing techniques, developers and papers and how they affect the image syntax; pushing and pulling and the zone system (altering the film's characteristic curve); advanced printing controls, like farmers reducer and flashing; working with continuous tone lith film and inter negatives for alternative printing.

If a student is already above this level, the instructor will assign the portfolio preparation project immediately. In addition to the visual work, the instructor will assign reading and articles discussing aesthetics and contemporary photographic issues.

2. The second half of the term will be a study of your personal vision and portfolio preparation. You will dedicate the rest of the term on a personal project that you will propose and conclude. You may choose to work with any technique, with the traditional black and white silver gelatin print, mixed medium, assemblage boxes, books, boxes, projections, light boxes, collages or any of the techniques you saw in class.

Requirements: a 15 to 20 image portfolio with a coherent theme in a professional presentation for a gallery or graduate school portfolio. During this period you will also be writing an artist statement that you can include in this portfolio.

Students in this course are expected to do personal testing and push their aesthetic ideologies. Please remember that the program you set out to complete in your college or university degree truly depends on the work you set out to complete.

I try to structure my classes so that it becomes a sort of studio, with demonstrations and hands–on experience. Through my personal and teaching experience, I have come to the conclusion that certain things are taught much more efficiently by watching and doing, rather than by talking and doing.

You are required to keep a journal. I suggest you keep two! One as a technical notebook where you write class notes and keep all hand–outs, assignments, contact sheets and darkroom data (this notebook can be a binder). The second notebook is your creative journal. Be as creative as possible! Draw in it, paste and glue things in it, record data and feelings. I always make double contact sheets. One I put in my negative archive, the second I use to cut out the images that I feel are strong and glue them into my journal, where I write my ideas, quotes, re–write a poem or write a poem.

There will be a series of slide presentations to give you an idea of the history of photography and a sense of visual aesthetics.

Field trips: to as many contemporary photography and art related exhibitions as possible. Where we go depends on which traveling exhibits are in Florence during the term. 


This includes participation/full participation.
Attendance and promptness are mandatory. Two absences will result in one grade less. Two latenesses is equivalent to one absence. Eight minutes tardiness is equal to a lateness.

Critiques are like tests; therefore, they cannot be missed! Check the final exam date on your schedule. No final critique absences will be excused; therefore no flights can be scheduled before or on this date. Missing the final critique will greatly affect your grade, resulting in a high risk of failure. Any exceptions to this rule will be made by the instructor and the Dean, so please talk to us in advance.


This class is designed to teach the fundamental skills in photography. Each assignment requires a certain skill level, presentation and thought. This is university level.

Students can achieve a passing grade by completing the assignments, having good attendance, and participating in class and during critiques.

Standards: Depending on your school, + or - grades can or cannot be given.

A = Work that far exceeds the minimum requirements in craftsmanship, presentation, and visual/intellectual order. Your concepts, ideas, and insightful participation in class and in critiques have to be of high level to obtain this grade.

B = above average work that far exceeds the minimum requirements. Skillful handling of the materials with good concepts, showing initiative in critiques and in class.

C = Average work completion with only adequate control of the materials. Minimum class and critique participation.

D = Failure to complete assignments resulting from a minimum amount of effort, poor execution, and sloppy craftsmanship in the handling of the materials with little or no class participation.

F = Little or no effort with consideration to the assignments. No participation in class or critiques.

Grading System:
Midterm - (completion of assignments, punctuality/attendance, quiz grades, journals):
40% of the grade.

Final - (final presentation and project, and punctuality/attendance):
60% of the grade.

Graduate Students
​Students in MFA, MA, and Post-Bac programs are expected to complete additional assignments and to produce work at a level appropriate for students in a graduate program. They are graded accordingly and, if they successfully complete all course requirements for graduate students, receive graduate-level credit for the course.

Required Materials

- 35 mm camera  or Medium or Large Format (must be manual) - macchina fotografica
- 50 mm or equivalent lens - obiettivo
- 20 + rolls of 35mm or 120 mm or large format sheet B/W film (Suggested film Kodak Tri-X 400 A.S.A) - pellicola
I suggest all students buy film in Italy due to risk of airport fogging and different film suggestions from the instructor

- 18x24 variable contrast / resin – coated photographic paper pearl finish
(carta politenata / perla 18x24)
- 24x30 variable contrast / resin – coated photographic paper pearl finish
(carta politenata / perla 24x30)
More advanced students may use fiber based paper
- 35mm clear plastic negative sleeves (or other format negative carriers for students using other format cameras) - porta negativi
- Binder to keep all negatives and contact sheets or an archival box - quaderno per porta negativi
- Ilford anti–static cloth - panno anti–statico
- Towel - asciugamano
- Apron - grembiule
- Scissors - forbici
- Rubber gloves (optional) - guanti di gomma

Where To Purchase Photo Materials

1. Bongi Ottica (they give a student discount)
Via Por Santa Maria, 82/r
Tel: 055-2398811

2. Ottica Fontani
Viale F. Strozzi, 18-20a
Tel: 055–470981

3. Toscana Foto Service /Internet Mail Order Service

4. Additional Internet sites. The websites below are excellent for finding required photo materials. You can also find good pre-cut or custom-cut archival matt board (with sufficient notice) at fotomatica at very good prices!

For Camera Repairs

  1. Ask Romeo
  2. Repair Service (take to Romeo)
  3. Bongi Ottica (they give a student discount)
    Via Por Santa Maria, 82/r
    Tel: 055-2398811
  4. TEXCIAS (for digital equipment and some analog)
    Viale Corsica 39AB
    Tel. 055-359968

For MAC Computer Repairs

  1. Juice Apple Premium
    Via Fra Giovanni Angelico, n.6/R
    Tel. 055 660337
  2.  Apple Firenze
    Piazza della Repubblica
  3. Apple I Gigli
    Via San Quirico, 164, Campi Bisenzio (FI)

Recommended Reading

In compliance with the Higher Education Opportunity Act Textbook Provision, SACI provides, when possible, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and retail price of required and recommended reading. Note: Many required and recommended texts are available for loan or can be consulted in the SACI Worthington Library.

Henry Horenstein, Beyond Basic Photography: A Technical Manual, Little, Brown & Company, 1977.
ISBN: 9780316373128 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Christopher James, The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes, Delmar Thomson Learning, 2002.
ISBN: 9780766820777 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

John Berger, About Looking, Pantheon Books, 1980.
ISBN: 9780394739076 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida, Vintage Books, 1993.
ISBN: 9780099225416 (Retail price: $14)

Robert Adams, Beauty in Photography. Essays in Defense of Traditional Values, Aperture, 1996.
ISBN: 9780893813680 (Retail price: $16.95)

John Berger, Ways of Seeing, Penguin Books, 1977.
ISBN: 9780140135152 (Retail price: $16)

Lewis Hyde, The Gift: Creativity and the Artist in the Modern World, Vintage, 2007.
ISBN: 9780307279507 (Retail price: $16.95)

Susan Sontag, On Photography, Penguin, 1979.
ISBN: 9780140053975 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Michael Rush, New Media in Late 20th-Century Art, Thames & Hudson, 1999.
ISBN: 9780500203293 (To Be Determined)

Andy Grundberg, Crisis of the Real: Writings on Photography since 1974, Aperture, 1999.
ISBN: 9780893818555 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Wassily Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual In Art, Dover Publications, Inc., 1977.
ISBN: 9780486234113 (Retail price: $6.95)

Herbert Read, The Meaning of Art, Faber & Faber, 1960.
ISBN: 978-0571096589 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Hal Foster, The Anti-Aesthetic. Essays on Postmodern Culture, The New Press, 1998.
ISBN: 9781565844629 (Retail price: $21.95)

Peter Galassi, Before Photography: Painting and the Invention of Photography, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1981.
ISBN: 9780870702549 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Trewin Copplestone, Art in Society, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1983.
ISBN: 9780130477125 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Additional articles may be assigned depending on the class's interest.
Your personal internet research.

Course Goals

1. To strengthen B&W photographic skills
2. To develop individual artistic expression
3. To develop skills in discussion of photographic work
4. To have fun

Assignments are designed to help explore options for technical control as well as visual experimentation. Keeping in mind the inseparability of photographic technique and expression, students will be expected to articulate their particular choices in relation to the overall conceptual approach of the projects.

Course grades will be based on class participation/discussion, assignments, critiques, quantity/quality of energy and imagination invested in each assignment, oral presentations and final critique. Attendance and promptness are mandatory. Three absences will result in one grade less. Chronic lateness will result in same (3 late classes = 1 absence). Assignments must be turned in the week requested. No exceptions, unless one has a note from the Dean.

To all the advanced students and continuing students from Intermediate Photography who had me as an instructor: I advise you to work on one continuous project! A small portfolio for graduate school applications, or a thesis (graduating senior exhibition). Remember that the exhibition will more than likely not be completed, but you will have a good start on your ideas and thesis. It is very important that if you wish to work on one project all term, I receive a written proposal as soon as possible (before the first week of the course). You may make a personal appointment with me if you need to clear your ideas and doubts.

The portfolio must be of approximately 15 to 20 finished images or a determined quantity in agreement with the professor, depending on the work being done. Also required is a well-researched artist statement that the students will work on the entire term in replacement of the written assignments normally assigned in this course. I also ask that either copy slides or good digital reproductions are made on a CD including identification of the artist, title, photographic process, date and size. You are required to leave me with one copy for personal documentation, therefore it is much more economical to make more then one copy of slides (CD’s are easy to burn).

General Safety & Emergency Instructions

Click here for a pdf of SACI's General Safety & Emergency Instructions.

Additional Safety Information

First-Aid Kit in the Photography Darkroom
In the darkroom upstairs, next to the entrance, is a green first-aid kit for eye injuries.  It contains a solution for application to the eyes, eye patches, a plastic container, and scissors.


(Please note: The following schedule is subject to change.)

Week 1

Tuesday, July 2
Introduction to course, look at syllabus and schedule, what is expected of you in the class.
Test light meters, apertures and shutter speeds.
(Reminder: bring cameras and manuals if you have them.)
Visit Bongi Photo store, buy all material for class.

Break for lunch.

Take a quick digital image for Romeo’s student ID cards.

Assign Project #1 (A DOCUMENT vs. DOCUMENTARY)
Photograph – What realistically makes a photograph “Art” or is it a mere rendering of reality? The camera as a reproducing tool? Is a photograph a window or a mirror?
For this assignment, I would like a (minimum) of two rolls of film.
The two films must be of different sensitivities, ASA’s (film speeds). 
For July 4.

Read chapter #1 of Susan Sontag’s On Photography chapter title, "In Plato’s Cave."
Please write a short paragraph on your thoughts. It must be anonymous.
For July 9.

The camera and the lens: how they function. For students that need some refreshing. A requirement for the students in the lower level.


Thursday, July 4
Film development (reminder: bring exposed film and negative sleeves).
Lecture and demo on film development (break any bad habits).
It is important and required that all levels of students be present.

Break for lunch.

Contact Sheets (reminder: bring developed film, 24x30 paper).

Assign Reading, “On Reading Contact Sheets.”

Slide show on The Natural / Urban Landscape / Natural Form and Portrait / Human Form.

Assign project #2 “The Natural/Urban Landscape” and "Natural Form (The Still Life) ”
“The Portrait or the Human Form.”
Contact or non-contact, the psychological impact to the viewer

"Man and the Landscape."

Due July 16, a minimum of four images. Class Critique requirement for all.

If we have time we will have a quick overview of aperture and shutter speed for creative use, for those students who need it.
Importance of selective focus. The camera as a television screen.
Bring your cameras.

Week 2

Tuesday, July 9
Printing: demo and explanation on use of contrast filters as a tool; print; check any bad printing habits. Demo on burning and dodging.
(Reminder: bring developed negatives and 18 x 24 paper.)


Printing demo in trays and in the processing machine.
Perhaps a demo on tray processing of paper.

Break for lunch.


Assign readings. Roland Barthes and Barbara Bullock/Wayne Bullock.

Negative evaluation, what a negative should look like, how they should be interpreted.

Printing time.

Characteristics of emulsion: film and paper.

Light and how it can fool the camera…white subjects, dark subjects, skin tones and back lighting. A short description of the zone system and a characteristic curve. Sensitometry. Show examples of film and its responses on light due to film speed, push/pull and formats.

Reminder: hand in first assignment; contact sheets. Place in envelope, labeled with your name, in Romeo Di Loreto.


Thursday, July 11
Pre-Reminder “A Personal Investigation.” Start thinking about it!

Demo: Contrast control. Flashing of the photographic paper and Farmers Reducer.

Break for lunch.

Printing for Assignment #2 (Reminder: critique next class).

Week 3

Tuesday, July 16
Assign project #3 “A Personal Investigation.” Start thinking about it! Requirement: A written project proposal, and individual meetings with Romeo. If possible, written proposals should be ready by July 18.
A minimum of 10 to 12 images presented: not as loose prints…think of a presentation.

Lecture on how image syntax can change with papers, developers and different photographic techniques, and even size. Lecture will include demonstrations.

Printing (Suggestion, try different papers: Warm Tone or Cold Tone paper and fiber based.


Break for lunch.

Critique of assignment #2 (4 images or more).


Thursday, July 18

Presentation and demo on mounting and matting. Where to buy boards?
Demo on Spot Toning.

Field Trip: To a Photography Exhibition

Individual meetings with Romeo, if you have not had one.

Break for lunch.

Printing or photograph for Assignment #3.

Week 4

Tuesday, July 23
I will show my work and discuss my philosophy as a photographer.

Individual meetings with Romeo for your final project, a requirement! for all.

Printing for project #3.

Break for lunch.

Printing for project #3.
(Reminder: Final critique next class.)


Thursday, July 25
Print and finish preparations for critique in morning.

FINAL CRITIQUE (10 to 12 images and an artist statement)
I will keep your work until the end of the day, so I can make reproductions.

When I can organize a field trip to an exhibition, you will be notified!

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