ARTH(RS)335 Renaissance Art History Survey - Section A, Helen Watterson, Late Spring 2018
This course acquaints the student with major works of Florentine painting, sculpture, and architecture from the late Middle Ages through the early Renaissance, and then the beginning phases of the High Renaissance. As the course is only five weeks, nearly the whole course is taught on site in the monuments of the city. There is a strong focus on study of the art on site and whenever possible in its original context. An attempt is made to relate the art and architecture viewed to the history and culture from which it emerged, and of which it is an expression and reflection. There is a major emphasis on the fifteenth century (early Renaissance and beginning High Renaissance), when Florentine civilization and culture reached a peak of importance, and works of art were created here that were to influence posterity for centuries. Mandatory field trips to nearby towns from Fiesole to Pisa and Lucca, Siena and San Gimignano, as well as Arezzo, Sansepolcro, and Monterchi complement the lessons held in Florence and fill out the picture of the evolution of Renaissance art presented. Among the artists covered are Giotto, Masaccio, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Alberti, Fra Angelico, Piero della Francesca, Verrocchio, Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.
Sat., May 19 -- INTRODUCTORY FIELD TRIP TO FIESOLE. Meet punctually at 1,00 P.M. at school. There will be a visit to the excavations of the Etruscan and Roman town of Fiesole , to the Romanesque Cathedral, and to the Gothic S. Francesco on a hill with magnificent views down to the city of Florence ; then we will walk along the old Fiesolana road past a former Medici Villa down to the Renaissance Badia (abbey) patronized by Cosimo Medici the Elder and frequented by Renaissance humanists, and the church of S. Domenico, where the painter Fra Angelico began his career as a Dominican friar and left some early works. The visit to Fiesole as a whole will provide a perspective of the principal historical periods from Etruscan and Roman through Renaissance into which Florentine history and art can be subdivided.
Tues., May 22 -- Meet in classroom for introduction to course material and then visit to the exterior of the Romanesque Baptistery and to exterior and interior of the Gothic Cathedral of S. Maria del Fiore. The Baptistery was mistaken for a classical Roman Mars temple transformed into a Christian church in the Renaissance and is an outstanding example of Florentine Romanesque classicism. Its exterior is renowned for the famous bronze doors by Andrea Pisano and Ghiberti, now replaced or being replaced by copies. The Cathedral, still the third longest church in the world, is a massive expression of Florentine civic glory in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. There will be an unavoidable long line to enter the cathedral, due also to new security measures, so this visit will probably go a bit over time. Should this be a problem, you may do the interior of the Cathedral on your own at your convenience.
Thurs., May 24 -- Meet in Piazza Duomo between Baptistery and Cathedral to climb the Cathedral dome by Brunelleschi, an engineering as well as aesthetic masterpiece, in order to understand how it was built . You will also be able to see the frescoes of the Last Judgment by Vasari and Zuccari inside the dome up close, and get a bird's eye view of Florence from the marble lantern on top of the dome (the highest vantage point in the city center): an excellent introduction to the city as a whole. After coming down from the dome we visit the recently renovated and reopened Opera del Duomo Museum (Cathedral works), with important statuary and other works from the Cathedral complex, including the restored Baptistery Doors by Ghiberti, Donatello’s famous statues from the Campanile (bell tower) of the Cathedral, as his Zuccone or “ Pumpkin Head”, together with his Mary Magdalen from the Baptistery, as well as a late Pietà by Michelangelo. At the end of class, there will also be a brief visit to the interior of the Romanesque Baptistery , decorated with a splendid and lavish cycle of Italo-Byzantine mosaics. Class goes exceptionally until 12,00 due to the need to exploit the costly combined ticket for the sites in the Cathedral area.
Wed., May 23 or Thurs., May 24 , 3,30 P.M. -- Meet in Piazza Duomo between Baptistery and Cathedral for walk up to the beautiful Romanesque Benedictine abbey church of S. Miniato on a hill overlooking Florence. This church, very similar in style to the Baptistery, was -- together with the Baptistery -- an important starting point for Florentine architecture. Those who want can remain at S. Miniato to listen to the Gregorian Chants which they do after the regular mass daily in the crypt. (Mass is at 5,30 P.M., the Gregorian chants are at 6,30 P.M.) These ritual chants have been sung every evening by monks there for centuries and are a kind of "time machine" bringing you back to the Middle Ages. You must make one of the visits to this site!
Sat., May 26 -- DAY FIELD TRIP TO PISA AND LUCCA. In the morning we study the Romanesque Cathedral, Baptistery, and Campanile of Pisa, together with Nicola and Giovanni Pisano's pulpits there , and the frescoes and sinopias in the Camposanto and Sinopia Museum. The afternoon is spent in Lucca, where we see several important Romanesque churches, and also an unusual perfectly oval piazza built upon the foundations of an ancient Roman amphitheatre. Further details to be announced.
Tues., May 29 -- Meet in front of the Bargello (on Via del Proconsolo) for a viewing of major works of early and High Renaissance sculpture in this museum , for example the competition panels for the Baptistery Doors by Brunelleschi and Ghiberti, Donatello's marble and bronze Davids , and his St. George,Verrocchio’s bronze David, as well as Michelangelo's Bacchus. Due to problems with overcrowding as a consequence of mass tourism, the Accademia reservation was only available for the afternoon. Class will be a shorter in the morning and you must choose one of the afternoon visits. See below.
Tues., May 29 or Wed., May 30 – Meet punctually at 4,00 P.M. at entrance to Accademia Gallery on Via Ricasoli, just off of Piazza S. Marco, to see Michelangelo's renowned David, his St. Matthew , a Pietà of disputed attribution, and four Captives by the artist intended for the Tomb of Pope Julius II, together with a few other masterpieces in the Gallery.
Thurs., May 31 – Meet in Piazza Signoria in front of Palazzo Vecchio, next to copy of Michelangelo's David . We begin class by discussing the Piazza Signoria, where we view the Palazzo Vecchio and Loggia dei Lanzi and discuss the history of this famous civic heart of Florence. Then we visit the church of S. Croce of the Franciscan order and one of Florence's most important monuments, famous for its frescoes by Giotto and his followers, which were a handmaid to Franciscan preaching in their newly realistic portrayal of the lives of the saints. We will also see the many tombs of illustrious Florentines, for example Michelangelo, which are in this basilica -- a “Florentine Pantheon”. Inside the sacristy of the church there is the renowned Italo-Byzantine Cross by Cimabue damaged in the flood of 1966 and excellently restored. We end class with the Museum of S. Croce, adjacent to the basilica, where there is the Pazzi Chapel by Brunelleschi , sometimes considered the "jewel" of early Renaissance architecture, and the refectory (former dining hall) where there is the Last Supper and Tree of Life by Taddeo Gaddi; his Last Supper is the first in an illustrious series to decorate a monastic refectory.
Sat., June 2 -- DAY FIELD TRIP TO SIENA AND SAN GIMIGNANO. This important field trip focuses on major works of Gothic architecture, sculpture, and painting in Siena, including the Cathedral, Campo, Palazzo Pubblico , Giovanni Pisano's facade sculpture from the Cathedral, Duccio's great altarpiece the Maestà in the Opera del Duomo Museum, and Ambrogio Lorenzetti's Good and Bad Government frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico, together with the fresco there representing Guido Riccio da Fogliano (an interesting controversial issue), once considered a masterpiece by Simone Martini but now recognized as most probably a much later repainting. In Siena we also will be seeing famous Renaissance works such as the sculptures and reliefs by Donatello, Ghiberti, and Jacopo della Quercia on the Baptismal Font of the Cathedral, and frescoes illustrating the life of Pope Pius II by Pinturicchio in the Piccolomini Library next to the Cathedral. The afternoon will be devoted to lovely S. Gimignano, one of the best preserved medieval towns in Italy, famous for its house-towers of the 12th and 13th centuries. Details to be announced.
Tues ., June 5 -- Meet at central free-standing column in Piazza Repubblica, and then walk to the Strozzi Palace by Benedetto da Maiano and Il Cronaca and the Rucellai Palace by Alberti, two major Renaissance palaces of Florence. Next we go to the church of S. Trinità, where we will be studying especially the frescoes by Ghirlandaio with the Life of St. Francis in the Sassetti Chapel there, one of his masterpieces full of portraits of important personalities from the time of Lorenzo the Magnificent Medici. Our next site is the Renaissance church of S. Spirito, a masterpiece by Brunelleschi and one of the most beautiful churches of this period. We end class with the former grain market and oratory of Orsanmichele, where we focus especially on its important early Renaissance statuary (all of which unfortunately has been replaced by copies) by Donatello, Nanni di Banco, and Ghiberti in the exterior niches of the various major and minor merchant and artisan guilds. The originals can be viewed for free on one of the upper floors but only on Monday. You are encouraged to go and see these on your own.
Tues., June 5 or Wed., June 6 – Meet at 2,45 P.M. in front of the Uffizi at group entrance to gallery (half way down left side of building when facing towards river). Be punctual because we have a reservation to enter the gallery as a group both days! We will be seeing a selection of late medieval, early and High Renaissance works, together with some Mannerist and Baroque works in the gallery, from Cimabue, Duccio and Giotto, through Simone Martini, the Lorenzetti, Gentile da Fabriano, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, Titian, Bronzino, and Caravaggio. This visit is scheduled for the afternoon to attempt to avoid crowds as much as possible. You must make one of the visits. Please also note that the Uffizi is in a state of continual transformation due to restoration of its rooms in progress.
Thurs., June 7 – Meet in front of the Dominican church of S. Maria Novella with a famous Renaissance facade by L.B. Alberti and important Gothic and Renaissance paintings , from a mid-Trecento Last Judgment inspired from Dante's Inferno and painted shortly after the Plague of 1348, to Masaccio's Trinity, the first painting in perfect one-point perspective, and Ghirlandaio's and Filippino Lippi's late Quattrocento frescoes for the Tornabuoni and Strozzi Chapels . We also see the Green Cloister next to the church with the Gothic Spanish Chapel. Next we walk to the church of S. Maria del Carmine where we see the Brancacci Chapel, with recently cleaned frescoes by Masaccio, Masolino, and Filippino Lippi. These frescoes, illustrating the Life of St. Peter and the Temptation and Expulsion of Adam and Eve, constitute one of the foundations for the early Renaissance style and were studied by all major Renaissance painters after Masaccio, including Piero della Francesca, Ghirlandaio and the young Michelangelo.
Sat., June 9 -- DAY FIELD TRIP TO AREZZO, SANSEPOLCRO, AND MONTERCHI to study the frescoes by Piero della Francesca in Arezzo ( Legend of the True Cross), together with other sites in Arezzo from the Cathedral and the church of S. Domenico, to Vasari's house, and the works by Piero in the Civic Museum in Sansepolcro (Madonna of Mercy, Resurrection), and Monterchi ( Madonna del Parto, e.g., Pregnant Madonna). Piero della Francesca, a native of Sansepolcro who spent most of his long career working in the Arezzo area, was one of the supreme artists of the early Renaissance; he was an expert in mathematics and geometry, and his style as a painter is characterized by a mathematical perfection in perspective and a geometrical abstraction of form which has been viewed as prophetic of modern art.
Tues., June 12 -- Meet in Piazza S. Marco in center of piazza where statue and benches are. There will be a visit to the monastery of S. Marco, now the Fra Angelico Museum, to study the unique frescoes in their original location in this former monastery by the Dominican painter Fra Angelico, one of the most important early Renaissance artists in the period immediately following Masaccio's death. The Museum also features panel paintings by Fra Angelico located in one of the downstairs rooms. We will likewise see the nearby ex-convent ofSant'Apollonia to study Andrea del Castagno's Last Supper -- the most striking treatment of the subject in a Renaissance dining hall before Leonardo da Vinci. We finish class with a brief visit to see Andrea del Sarto's Last Supper in the dining hall of the former monastery of S. Salvi, a beautiful example of High Renaissance painting and a Florentine answer to Leonardo da Vinci's better known treatment of this subject in Milan. We will be taking a local city bus from Piazza S. Marco to S. Salvi.
Thurs, June 14 -- Meet in front of the Medici Palace (on Via Cavour) built by Michelozzo for Cosimo the Elder and inhabited by his descendants, including Lorenzo the Magnificent, for approximately a century. This palace set a prototype for subsequent Renaissance palaces in the city. There we also see the frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli in the family chapel replete with many portraits of important personalities of the time . Next we walk to Piazza Ss. Annunziata to visit Brunelleschi's Hospital of the Innocents , the first Renaissance building to be finished. This famous orphanage is not only an excellent example of early Renaissance architecture but also illustrates the humanitarian side of Renaissance society. We finish class with a brief visit to the basilica of Ss. Annunziata, in the past as still today a major Florentine sanctuary housing an early painting of the Annunciation thought to be miracle working.
Tues., June 19 -- Meet at church of S. Lorenzo at entrance to Medici Chapels (in Piazza Madonna degli Aldobrandiniin the back of the church close to SACI building and not in front of unfinished façade of church) for a visit to the New Sacristy by Michelangelo with the tombs of Dukes Lorenzo and Giuliano, including the renowned allegorical statues of the Times of Day, as well as the Baroque Chapel of the Princes, with the tombs of the Medici Grand Dukes. Next we visit the interior of the church of S. Lorenzo to see both the Old Sacristy and nave, beautiful examples of Brunelleschi’s early Renaissance style , each of which likewise includes outstanding works by Donatello. We also view Michelangelo’s Laurentian library, including his famous staircase. ALL TERM PAPERS DUE.
Thurs., June 21 -- Meet in front of Palazzo Pitti (across the Arno beyond Ponte Vecchio) for visit to the Palatine Gallery. There we will be seeing masterpieces of High and late Renaissance painting, by Raphael, Sarto, Titian, and others, as well as many beautiful Baroque works. We end class with a brief visit to the church of S. Felicità to view Pontormo’s Descent from the Cross (or Entombment) in the Capponi Chapel there, considered his masterpiece and recently restored. This early Mannerist work has often been compared to modern art! ALL CLASS AND FIELD TRIP DIARIES DUE.
PLEASE DO NOT WEAR SHORTS OR SLEEVELESS LOW NECKED SHIRTS/BLOUSES ON DAYS WE VISIT CHURCHES, AS YOU RISK NOT TO BE ADMITTED! THEY ARE ESPECIALLY RIGOROUS ON THIS AT THE CATHEDRAL OF FLORENCE, CATHEDRAL OF PISA, AND CATHEDRAL OF SIENA! It is considered in poor taste in all churches.
All students taking the course for credit are required to write a compare/contrast paper of circa 10 to 15 pages (if handwritten, if typed slightly less) on one of the following subjects; these papers are to be done through on site study as well as background reading from library books and/or JSTOR articles. Please avoid doing the papers exclusively from the web!! Use web only for JSTOR articles. Papers are due on Tues., June 19. Please follow guidelines for presentation of papers handed out on separate sheet.
1. Discuss the Madonna and Child paintings in the Uffizi by Cimabue, Giotto and Duccio (first room), Pietro Lorenzetti (second room), Domenico Veneziano (St. Lucy altarpiece in sixth room), Filippo Lippi (small Lippi with Madonna in three-quarter view and two angels around Christ in sixth room), Botticelli (Madonna of the Magnificat, in ninth room), and Michelangelo Doni Tondo (in newly arranged room of Niobe with masterpieces of the Cinquecento off west corridor of gallery); explain how each of these paintings illustrate the development from Italo-Byzantine to Florentine and Sienese Gothic styles, then to early Renaissance realism, and finally to High Renaissance classicizing idealism. How are these paintings similar? different? How do they illustrate typical features of their respective periods and artists?
2. Discuss the development and evolution of the David theme in Florentine sculpture through a comparison and contrast of Donatello's two Davids, and Verrocchio's David in the Bargello, and Michelangelo's David in the Accademia. How is each work typical of its time period and artist? What do these sculptures show about the evolution of Renaissance sculpture towards a more ideal and classicizing style as the High Renaissance evolves out of the early Renaissance?
3. Compare and contrast the Annunciations by Simone Martini in the Uffizi (second room), Fra Angelico in S. Marco (both one at top of stairs and one in friar's cell), Filippo Lippi in S. Lorenzo (Martelli Chapel), Alesso Baldovinetti (Uffizi, one of the first rooms off the west corridor), Botticelli (Uffizi, eighth room), and Leonardo da Vinci (Uffizi, newly arranged room of Niobe with masterpieces of Cinquecento off west corridor of gallery). Demonstrate how these works illustrate their respective period styles from Gothic through early Renaissance, and beginning High Renaissance (Leonardo), and how they reflect the evolution of Tuscan painting in the periods covered. You may also want to bring in how some of these paintings reflect different concepts of how the Annunciation ought to be portrayed, such as Leonardo versus Botticelli. A good source to help with this is Baxandall , Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy -- see bibliography below.
4. Compare and contrast Giotto’s Life of St. Francis in the Bardi Chapel in S. Croce with Ghirlandaio’s Life of St. Francis in the Sassetti Chapel in S. Trinità. How does each Life illustrate typical features respectively of Gothic and early Renaissance art?
5. Compare and contrast the Last Supper by Taddeo Gaddi in the refectory of S. Croce with Andrea del Castagno's Last Supper in the refectory of Sant'Apollonia (near Piazza S. Marco), and with Andrea del Sarto's Last Supper in the refectory of San Salvi. Demonstrate how these three works are typical of Gothic, early Renaissance, and High Renaissance styles in Florence, and how they illustrate the evolution of painting here in the periods covered. Andrea del Sarto's ought to also be compared with famous one by Leonardo in Milan--read about the latter in text.
6. Compare and contrast the architectural styles of S. Miniato (Romanesque), S. Maria Novella and/or S. Croce (Gothic), and S. Lorenzo and/or S. Spirito (early Renaissance). Be sure to explain the ground plan and elevation of each building discussed. How are each of these churches typical of their time period? How are the Italian Gothic buildings different from French Gothic? How do the these buildings compare with local Early Christian basilicas? Were the Florentine Romanesque and Gothic styles illustrated by the buildings selected influential on the early Renaissance style of Brunelleschi? If so, how? Do this topic only if you already have some art history experience.
Note: Anyone wishing to do the paper on a topic other than the ones listed may do so provided they consult with me first and have their topic approved. Also anyone wanting advice on their paper see me briefly after class either day or on field trips.
Class and Field Trip Diary
In addition to your term paper, you will also be required to write a brief summary (about a hand written page minimum, if you want with drawings) of what you have seen and studied during each class session and field trip, and its importance. These must be submitted at last class session on Thurs., June 21. You can present them in the form of a small notebook. If you want, you can also revise them after each class session and field trip, and present them in typed form.
Grades amd Attendence
Your grades will be based on the term paper (50%) and your class and field trip diary (40%), but also on attendance (10%). Thus do not miss classes as it will count against you! Attendance on field trips is likewise mandatory.
Students in MFA, MA, and Post-Bac programs are expected to complete additional assignments and to produce work at a level appropriate for students in a graduate program. They are graded accordingly and, if they successfully complete all course requirements for graduate students, receive graduate-level credit for the course.
A packet of supplementary material with a listing of works covered in this class, including some historical and art historical information, can be purchased for a small fee (approximately 10 Euros) at the Copisteria X, Via San Gallo n°72/r. Consult your maps for location of this photocopy store, or ask Sam at main desk for help. A copy of this material will also be sent to you via a pdf.
In compliance with the Higher Education Opportunity Act Textbook Provision, SACI provides, when possible, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and retail price of required and recommended reading. Note: The SACI Worthington Library has numerous copies of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th editions of the Frederick Hartt book (all approved for use by the instructor) that can be checked out for the entire term. There are also several copies kept on reserve for use in the library. Therefore, you do not need to purchase this text. If you prefer to purchase your own copies of the books below, they can be ordered from the Paperback Exchange, Via delle Oche 4R.
Frederick Hartt, History of Italian Renaissance Art, Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, Seventh Edition, Pearson, 2010 (or previous editions), relevant sections.
ISBN 9780205705818 (Retail price: $152.20)
(Focus on works emphasized in class, as obviously you can not read all of this in five weeks.)
Eve Borsook, Companion Guide to Florence, Companion Guides, 2000.
ISBN: 9781900639194 (Retail price: $34.95)
(Good to read sections relevant to our site visits in correlation with these visits.)
A FEW RECOMMENDED READINGS
Note that the books below are available for loan or consultation in the SACI Worthington Library. It is not necessary to purchase any of them.
Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, Penguin Classics, 1990.
ISBN: 9780140445343 (Retail price: $17)
(still fundamental to our concept of the Renaissance.)
Ferdinand Schevill, Medieval and Renaissance Florence, 2 vols., Harper Torchbooks, 1963.
ISBN: To Be Determined (Retail price: To Be Determined)
(excellent and thorough history of Florence in these periods.)
Gene Brucker, Renaissance Florence, University of California Press, 1983.
ISBN: 9780520046955 (Retail price: $28.95)
Christopher Hibbert, The Rise and Fall of the House of Medici, Penguin, 1974.
ISBN: 9780140050905 (Retail price: To Be Determined)
Lisa Kaborycha, A Short History of Renaissance Italy, forward by Gene Brucker, Pearson, 2010.
ISBN: 9780136054849 (Retail price: $44.40)
Cennino Cennini, The Craftsman's Handbook, trans. Daniel Thompson, Jr., Dover Publications, 2000.
ISBN: 9780486200545 (Retail price: $9.95)
(best source for anyone who wants to learn about fresco and panel painting techniques.)
Leon Battista Alberti, On Painting, trans. John Spencer, Yale University Press,1966.
ISBN: 9780300000016 (Retail price: $17)
(written 1435/36 this is the best mouthpiece of early Renaissance pictorial theory and was used as a handbook in Renaissance workshops.)
Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, Vol. 1, trans. George Bull, Penguin Classics, 1988.
ISBN: 9780140445008 (Retail price: $15)
Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, Vol. 2, trans. George Bull, Penguin Classics, 1988.
ISBN: 9780140444605 (Retail price: $15)
(excellent biographies of Renaissance artists.)
George Ferguson, Signs and Symbols in Christian Art, Oxford University Press, 1966.
ISBN: 9780195014327 (Retail price: $19.99)
(strongly recommended for anyone with a weak background in Biblical iconography; provides a short, readable introduction to Old and New Testament subject matter.)
James Hall and Kenneth Clark, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, Richard D Irwin, 1985.
ISBN: 9780719541476 (Retail price: To Be Determined)
Erwin Panofsky, Studies in Iconology, Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance, Westview Press, 1972.
ISBN: 9780064300254 (Retail price: $55)
(first published in 1939, remains an excellent consideration of Renaissance humanism, for example neo-Platonism, in relation to pictorial and sculptural subject matter.)
Renaissance Art within its social/historical context, especially helpful for Annunciation paper topic
Michael Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy, a Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style, Oxford University Press, 1988.
ISBN: 9780192821447 (Retail price: $19.95)
(strongly recommended, excellent discussion of subject, puts paintings discussed in new light.)
Monograph useful for St. Francis comparison topic
Eve Borsook and Johannes Offerhaus, Francesco Sassetti and Ghirlandaio at Santa Trinità, Florence, Florence, Davaco Publishers, 1981.
ISBN: 9789070288037 (Retail price: To Be Determined)
(excellent analysis of this Renaissance chapel.)
Monographs useful for sculpture paper topic (David)
H.W. Janson, The Sculpture of Donatello, Princeton University Press, 1963.
ISBN: 9780691035284 (Retail price: To Be Determined)
Bonnie Bennett and David Wilkins, Donatello, Moyer Bell, Phaidon Press, 1984.
ISBN: 9780714821757 (Retail price: To Be Determined)
Adrian W.B.Randolph, Engaging Symbols; Gender, Politics, and Public Art in Fifteenth-Century Florence, New Haven and London, Yale Univ. Press, 2002.
ISBN: 9780300092127 (Retail price: To Be Determined)
Laurie Schneider, “Donatello’s Bronze David,” The Art Bulletin, LV, 1973, 213-216.
Andrew Butterfield, “New Evidence for the Iconography of David in Quattrocento Florence,” I Tatti Studies: Essays in the Renaissance,” 6, 1995, 115-133.
Sarah Blake McHam, “Donatello’s Bronze David and Judith as Metaphors of Medici Rule in Florence,” The Art Bulletin, March, 2001, 32-47.
Andrew Butterfield, The Sculptures of Andrea del Verrocchio, Yale University Press, 1997.
ISBN: 9780300071948 (Retail price: $95)
Charles Seymour Jr., Michelangelo's "David": a Search for Identity, W.W. Norton, 1974.
ISBN: 9780393098891 (Retail price: To Be Determined)
A.Victor Coonin, From Marble to Flesh. The Biography of Michelangelo’s David, The Florentine Press, 2014. (Excellent new study of Michelangelo’s most famous statue.)
ISBN: 9788897696025 (Retail price: €25)
FOR STUDENTS INTERESTED IN SPECIFIC READINGS ON INDIVIDUAL ARTISTS OR THEMES BEYOND WHAT IS LISTED HERE SEE ME FOR ADVICE.
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