ARTH335 and ARTH(OS2)495 High Renaissance, Mannerist, and Baroque Art History, Helen Watterson, Spring 2020 | SACI College of Art & Design Florence

ARTH335 and ARTH(OS2)495 High Renaissance, Mannerist, and Baroque Art History, Helen Watterson, Spring 2020

Purpose Statement

This course covers the architecture, sculpture, and painting of central and north Italy during the High Renaissance, Mannerist, and early Baroque periods. The first half of the semester traces the emergence of the High Renaissance style in late Quattrocento Florence and early Cinquecento Rome, and focuses in depth on Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante. The second part of the course studies the innovative development and transformation of the classicizing High Renaissance style by north Italian masters such as Correggio, Giorgione, and Titian, as well as by “Mannerist” artists, for example Pontormo, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino, Giulio Romano, Bronzino, Cellini, and Giambologna. The course concludes with a consideration of the powerful realism of the early Baroque from the Bolognese Carracci and their followers such as Guido Reni, to Caravaggio and Bernini in Rome. Throughout the course an attempt is made to present the art in relation to the history and culture from which it emerged, and of which it is an expression and reflection. There is a strong emphasis on teaching on site, in order to exploit the possibility of bringing to life the works of art in their original context as much as possible. There are required day field trips to Vinci and Medici Villas around Florence, to the Certosa di Galluzzo, and to Bologna, and a comprehensive weekend field trip to Rome focused on both the High Renaissance and the Baroque. A major goal of the course is to thoroughly acquaint the student with the High Renaissance style, both in its role as a brief peak in the development of the Renaissance as a whole, and as an embodiment of artistic perfection that set a foundation for and challenge to later artists from the Mannerist and Baroque periods through modern times.


Mon., Jan. 13 -- Meet in classroom. Introduction to course material. Definition of High Renaissance. Lecture on Leonardo da Vinci, key artist at beginning of High Renaissance: a search for "ideal beauty", combined with an intense research of nature and empirical reality as key features of his style.

Wed., Jan. 15 -- Meet in classroom. Lecture on Leonardo continued: further discussion of his early Florentine works and then of his Milanese works executed when at the court of Ludovico il Moro, including his renowned Last Supper.

Mon ., Jan. 20 Meet in classroom. Lecture on Leonardo continued and concluded: his later Florentine works, his second Milanese period, his Deluge studies and other drawings, and his final years in France.

Wed., Jan. 22 – Meet in classroom. First lecture on Michelangelo: his early Florentine and Roman works, including the Bacchus and the Pietà in St. Peter's.

Sun., Jan. 26 INTRODUCTORY FIELD TRIP TO VINCI, to see a museum there with constructions of Leonardo's inventions. In the museum of Vinci there are large three-dimensional models of Leonardo's projects for flying machines, underwater exploration equipment, and other conceptions prophetic of modern technology. We will also see several MEDICI VILLAS (country houses) AND GARDENS in the vicinity of Florence, including Poggio a Caiano, Castello if possible, and Petraia,

Mon., Jan. 27 – Meet in classroom. Second lecture on Michelangelo: his Florentine works 1501 to 1505, especially the David, Doni Madonna, and the now lost cartoon for the Battle of Cascina.

Wed., Jan. 29 – Meet in classroom. Lecture on Michelangelo in Rome 1505-14 with focus on his gargantuan first project for the Tomb of the ambitious Pope Julius II, then on his Sistine Ceiling, together with his first statues for the Tomb of Pope Julius II, especially Moses.

Fri., Jan. 31 -- Meet punctually at 3,15 P.M. in front of Uffizi Gallery at entrance to museum. We will have a reservation. There will be a visit to the gallery with a viewing of a few important works forming a background to the High Renaissance, and of the major works of central Italian High Renaissance art in the gallery by Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto and others. We will also see masterpieces to be studied in the second half of the semester by north Italian High and late Renaissance artists from Correggio to Titian, and by Mannerist and early Baroque artists, including Pontormo, Rosso, Parmigianino, Bronzino, and Caravaggio. Visit ends at circa 6,30 P.M. It is scheduled outside of class time to try to avoid crowds as much as possible. Attendance is required except for those with a conflicting Friday class.

Mon., Feb. 3 -- Meet very punctually in front of church of S. Croce for visit to nearby Casa Buonarroti (on Via Ghibellina), which contains Michelangelo's earliest known works: the Madonna of the Stairs and Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs. They will be opening this museum early for us (for public opens at 10,00) thus if you are late, there will be no way for you to get in!! After class, on your own, you are recommended to visit the church of S. Croce (opens at 9,30) to see Michelangelo's tomb and works from the Gothic period and the early Renaissance in this church which would have influenced him in his youth.

Wed., Feb. 5 – Meet exceptionally at 8,15 in front of the Galleria dell’Accademia at entrance to this famous museum (just off Piazza S. Marco on Via Ricasoli) for visit to see Michelangelo's David, St. Matthew, Florentine Captives, and a Pietà of disputed attribution, together with other works by Florentine masters, mainly of the 1500's.

Mon., Feb. 10 Meet in classroom. First lecture on Raphael, third genius of the High Renaissance: his formation in Urbino and Perugia, his Florentine works 1505-08, and his Roman works for Pope Julius II, especially the frescoes for the papal apartments of the Vatican, such as the School of Athens.

Wed., Feb. 12 -- Meet in classroom. Further consideration of Raphael; his frescoes for Pope Julius II continued with focus on the Heliodorus Room and his later Roman portraits and other private commissions; the development of a dramatic proto-Baroque style in his later works. Discussion also of Bramante, the most famous High Renaissance architect, and the one who planned new St. Peter's for Julius II.

Fri., Feb. 14 – Sun., Feb. 16 -- IMPORTANT WEEKEND FIELD TRIP TO ROME AND TIVOLI, including a viewing of High Renaissance masterpieces by Michelangelo, Raphael, and Bramante; there will also be a study of major Baroque works by Caravaggio, Bernini, and Borromini. Visits to Vatican, St. Peter's, Farnesina (frescoes by Raphael), S. Pietro in Montorio (Tempietto by Bramante), S. Pietro in Vincoli (Moses), Borghese Gallery, Piazza Navona, S. Luigi dei Francesi (Caravaggio), S. Maria del Popolo (Caravaggio and Bernini), Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum, and the Villa d’Este and Villa Adriana in Tivoli. Further details to be announced. If you have Friday classes, you will be excused from them due to this trip which leaves early in the morning.

Mon., Feb. 17 Meet in classroom. Lecture on Michelangelo’s Roman works 1534-64, with particular focus on his Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel painted 1536-41 for Pope Paul III Farnese. We will also discuss his architectural projects for St. Peter's and the Capitoline Hill, as well as his late Pietàs. Review sheets and take-home essay question for midterm exam to be distributed.

Wed., Feb. 19 Meet at S. Lorenzo at entrance to Medici Chapels (Cappelle Medicee) in back of church. We will be concentrating on Michelangelo's Medici Chapel (New Sacristy) with the tombs of Dukes Giuliano and Lorenzo, and the Medici Madonna. In addition, we see the Chapel of the Princes, the grandiose mausoleum of the Medici dukes of the second branch of the family (beginning with Duke Cosimo I). If possible, we will also view the Laurentian Library with Michelangelo's famous staircase. Brief visit to the Old Sacristy by Brunelleschi inside the basilica as well; this is the first Medici burial chapel at S. Lorenzo and the prototype for Michelangelo's famous chapel.

Mon., Feb. 24 – Meet exceptionally at 8,30 in front of Bargello on Via Ghibellina, for visit to see the works of Michelangelo in this museum, including Bacchus, together with Mannerist masterpieces by Cellini, Giambologna, and others; there will also be a brief viewing of some important early Renaissance sculptures in the museum which provide a background to Michelangelo's work, such as Donatello's Davids and his St. George.

Mon., Feb. 24 -- 7,30 P.M. Meet in classroom. Optional review for midterm exam and question and answer session. (To be confirmed)

Wed., Feb. 26 Meet in classroom. Midterm Exam.

Sat., Feb. 29 - Sun., Mar. 8 SPRING MIDTERM BREAK.

Mon., Mar. 9 – Meet in classroom. First lecture on North Italian, especially Venetian masters of the High and late Renaissance, including Correggio and Giorgione. There will be a focus on the north Italian reception and development of the central Italian High Renaissance.

Wed., Mar. 11 Meet in classroom. Second lecture on Venetian high and late Renaissance: Titian, the most famous artist of this period whose long career parallels that of Michelangelo; the importance of the Venetian Renaissance style as a link between the Renaissance and Baroque periods.

Fri . , Mar. 13 – Sun., Mar. 15 – OPTIONAL FIELD TRIP TO POMPEII, HERCULANEUM, AND NAPLES, including visits to excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and to the Archeological Museum and the Capodimonte Museum in Naples. Further details to be announced.

Mon., Mar. 16 – Meet in classroom. Concluding discussion of Venetian high and late Renaissance: Veronese and Tintoretto. Lecture on early Mannerist painting with consideration of works by Pontormo; discussion of the definition of early Mannerism in relation to the High Renaissance.

Wed., Mar. 18 -- Meet in Piazza Ss. Annunziata for visit to this church to see the paintings there by Andrea del Sarto and his pupils Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino; after this we take a bus 6 to S. Salvi, where we see Andrea del Sarto's famous and excellently preserved Last Supper, Florence's answer to Leonardo's work in Milan.

Sat., Mar. 21 -- MORNING FIELD TRIP IN FLORENCE to Opificio delle Pietre Dure Museum near Piazza S. Marco , for a study of this Florentine craft important in the Maniera and the Baroque periods here; we will also be visiting the Opera del Duomo Museum, especially to view Michelangelo’s Florence or Bandini Pietà, as well as other works relevant to our class in this museum. We will likewise be going to the Palazzo Vecchio, where Leonardo painted his infamous Battle of Anghiari, now lost but perhaps to be partially recuperated in the near future. Two highlights in the Palazzo Vecchio are the Studiolo of Francesco I, a fascinating alchemy study, and the Chapel of Eleonora of Toledo frescoed by Bronzino, Pontormo's pupil and adopted son. We will also see Michelangelo's Victory intended for the Tomb of Pope Julius II. We will in addition discuss the Maniera sculpture in Piazza Signoria. AFTERNOON FIELD TRIP TO CERTOSA DI GALLUZZO, an important Carthusian monastery south of Florence, where we will be studying especially Pontormo's frescoes in the large cloister. These are some of the most original works of the early Mannerist period. We will likewise see (in the morning) Pontormo’s masterpiece, the recently restored Descent from the Cross or Entombment in the Capponi Chapel in S. Felicità. Details to be announced.

Mon., Mar. 23 Meet in classroom. Lecture on early Mannerism continued with Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino and Giulio Romano.

Wed., Mar. 25 -- Meet in classroom. Lecture on second generation of Mannerist (or Maniera) painters; a striving for technical virtuosity and an emulation of Michelangelo as some major aspects of their style: the problem of the disjunction of form and content in Maniera religious painting--Bronzino, Salviati, and Vasari.

Sat., Mar. 28 OPTIONAL DAY FIELD TRIP TO MANTUA, including visits to the Ducal Palace with famous frescoes by Mantegna (Camera degli Sposi or Room of the Married Couple) and others, and the Palazzo Te, a masterpiece of the Mannerist period built and decorated as a suburban pleasure palace for Duke Federigo Gonzaga by Giulio Romano and his workshop -- particularly outstanding is the Fall of the Giants in a corner room which could be compared to modern installations. Mantua is also famous for two masterpieces of early Renaissance architecture by the Florentine architect L.B. Alberti and which were very influential on the High Renaissance: San Sebastiano, the first Greek cross church of the Renaissance, and Sant’Andrea, a revolutionary barrel-vaulted Latin cross church. This trip is highly recommended for members of our class. Further details to be announced.

Mon., Mar. 30Meet in classroom. Lecture on Maniera continued with a broad discussion of Maniera sculpture and architecture, including Vasari, Cellini, Ammannati, Giambologna, and Buontalenti.

Wed., Apr. 1 -- Meet in classroom. Lecture on the emergence of the central Italian Baroque style in painting through the works of Barocci and the Carracci: a return to High Renaissance principles of composition in reaction against Maniera artificiality, together with a renewed study of nature.

Mon., Apr. 6 -- Meet in classroom. Concluding considerations on the Carracci, and first lecture on the revolutionary early Baroque realist Caravaggio.

Wed., Apr. 8 -- Meet in classroom. Caravaggio continued: his mature Roman works executed in his distinctive dark palette (tenebroso) sometimes referred to as “cellar light”, including the Contarelli and Cerasi Chapels, and his Entombment in the Vatican.

Mon., Apr. 13 – NO CLASS. EASTER MONDAY. A make-up class is scheduled on Tues., Apr. 14.

Tues., Apr. 14 Meet in classroom at 7,30 P.M. until 9,15 P.M. for make-up class for Easter Monday. Concluding discussion of Caravaggio covering also his late works done in south Italy and Malta, and lecture on early Bernini, who developed the same type of revolutionary realism achieved by the painters discussed earlier in the medium of sculpture, and who is the greatest master of the Roman high Baroque . ALL TERM PAPERS DUE! Review sheets and take-home essay for final exam to be distributed.

Wed., Apr. 15 -- Meet punctually in front of the Palazzo Pitti, where we will have a visit to the Palatine Gallery, including a viewing of High Renaissance, Mannerist, and Baroque works in the gallery. We will also study Pietro da Cortona's famous ceiling frescoes.

Sat., Apr. 18 -- FIELD TRIP TO BOLOGNA. This trip to one of Italy's loveliest cities acquaints the student with early Michelangelo pieces in Bologna (S. Domenico) and with the Jacopo della Quercia sculptures at S. Petronio there which were very influential on him as a young artist. The major focus of the trip is Bolognese painting, especially that of the Carracci and their school ; in the late 1500's the Carracci reformed painting and helped to create the style we know as early Baroque. Our visit will encompass a viewing of representative works of the High Renaissance, Mannerist, and Baroque periods in the city.

Mon., Apr. 20 Meet in classroom. Concluding consideration of Bernini and begin review for final exam. Field Trip diaries due.

Mon., Apr. 20 – Meet in classroom at 7,30 P.M. Optional continuation of review for final exam. Time and date to be confirmed.

Wed., Apr. 22 -- Meet in classroom. FINAL EXAM.


Term Paper

All students taking the course for credit are required to take both midterm and final exams, and to write a term paper of circa 10 pages typed on a topic among those to be suggested on a separate sheet to follow, or a topic of your choice provided it is approved by me. Term papers must be properly footnoted and must include a list of sources consulted in a bibliography. They must also be based on research done on site. Do not do papers only from the Internet! Limit use of Internet as much as possible as the information on it is sometimes unreliable and hard to control. Of course, articles by reputable scholars consulted via JSTOR are acceptable sources but do not make articles of this sort your only source. Consult important monographs on the artists you are studying and which are available in our library as well! Illustrations, as your own drawings of works covered, are a welcome addition. Beginning bibliographies for all paper topics on list provided are available in a folder in our library. PLEASE CONSULT THESE HELPFUL BEGINNING BIBLIOGRAPHIES! Term papers are due Tues., Apr. 14 at make-up class then. All papers must be submitted directly to me. Do not leave papers in my box!


Attendance is of the utmost importance. School policy punishes more than two unexcused absences with a lowered grade. Late arrival in class is also to be penalized according to school policy, so please be punctual!

Field Trips

Attendance on all field trips listed on syllabus except Mantua, and Pompeii and Herculaneum, is obligatory for all students taking the course for credit, since you receive three extra credit hours for the field trips. Transportation costs and entrances are covered by the school, as well as the hotel and breakfasts on the Rome trip. Only students who miss a required field trip for a legitimate reason (as illness documented by doctor’s note or family emergency, not for personal travel plans, parents’ visits, or failed alarm clocks) will be allowed to do a make-up paper based on an independent visit to the site missed. Assignments for field trip make-up papers will be given by me. If you miss a required trip and fail to do a make-up assignment, your field trip grade will be lowered. All students taking the course for credit will also have to submit a short written (or typed) field trip diary for all the field trips that are required for this class in which you summarize what you have learned on each of these field trips, for example why are the sites visited important to the history of art and architecture, as well as include your personal reactions to what we viewed (about two typed pages per day trip, three or four for Rome/Tivoli minimum). You may include drawings and/or photographs made on these trips with your diary. Such illustrations are a very positive addition to your diaries. Your field trip diaries are due on Mon., Apr. 20.


Your grades are based on midterm and final exams, and the term papers (about 30% each); attendance is also considered. Although a separate grade is registered for the field trips, it is in general the same grade as for the course, since I do not test separately on the field trips, however your field trip diaries will be taken into consideration for the field trip grade. The exams in general are on material covered in both the lectures and site visits in Florence and the field trips. For example, there is a lecture on the Sistine Chapel, and it is also viewed on the Rome field trip. In other words, you cannot expect to receive an "A" for the field trip grade simply through attendance alone. Grades for both the course and the field trips are based on achievement. Thorough optional review sessions are held prior to both the midterm and final exams. Review lists are distributed about 10 days prior to each exam. All works covered on review lists can be viewed on a specially prepared computer disk and/or USB pen drive, available in the school library. Images used in lectures are also available on a disk or USB pen drive in the library. Please note that it is forbidden to bring computers into midterm and final exams. All cell phones must be turned off during exams as well.

Graduate Students

Students in MFA, MA, and Post-Bac programs are expected to complete additional assignments and to produce work at a level appropriate for students in a graduate program. They are graded accordingly and, if they successfully complete all course requirements for graduate students, receive graduate-level credit for the course.

Supplementary Material

Supplementary material prepared by me with relevant names, dates, and other factual material, and some historical and stylistic information, is available for purchase at the school photocopy store, the Copisteria X, Via San Gallo n. 72r. It is strongly recommended that you purchase this material, which will be helpful both for following lectures and in exam preparation.

Office Hours

Office hours for any problems with course requirements and for discussion of paper topics are Monday or Wednesday at 1,00 P.M., during spare time on field trips, or by appointment. Please let me know in advance if you are planning to see me during the office hour on one of these days.

Required Reading

In compliance with the Higher Education Opportunity Act Textbook Provision, SACI provides, when possible, the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and retail price of required and recommended reading. Note: The SACI Worthington Library has numerous copies of the Frederick Hartt book (all approved for use by the instructor) that can be checked out for the entire term.  These include different editions (from two through seven), which vary slightly but are all acceptable. There are also several copies kept on reserve for use in the library. Copies of the Wittkower and Janson texts are also on reserve for use only in the library. Therefore, you do not need to purchase any of these required texts.

Frederick Hartt, History of Italian Renaissance Art, Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, Seventh Edition, Pearson, 2010 (or previous editions). Before Midterm: Chapters 16, 17, 18--section on Michelangelo, and 20—section on Michelangelo. After Midterm: Sections not yet read of Chapters 18 and 20, and all of Chapter 19. Focus on works emphasized in class and on field trips.
ISBN: 9780205705818 (Retail price: $152.20)

Rudolph Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy: 1600-1750, Vol. I: Early Baroque, Yale University Press, 1999. Chapters 1-4. After Midterm.  Focus on works emphasized in class and on field trips.
ISBN: 9780300079395 (Retail price: $30)

Rudolph Wittkower, Art and Architecture in Italy: 1600-1750, Vol. 2: High Baroque, Yale University Press, 1999. Chapters 1-4. After Midterm.  Focus on works emphasized in class and on field trips.
ISBN: 9780300079401 (Retail price: $30)

H.W. Janson, History of Art, Prentice-Hall, 1962. Chapters 4 and 6 of Part Three covering Italian Mannerist and Baroque Art. After Midterm.
ISBN: 9780133893885 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Supplementary Reading

Note: Copies of the books below are available for loan or consultation in the SACI Worthington Library.

Primary Sources
Leon Battista Alberti, On Painting, trans. John Spencer, Yale University Press, 1966. (Written 1435/36 this is best mouthpiece of early Renaissance pictorial theory and was used as a handbook in Renaissance workshops, also during the High Renaissance.)
ISBN: 9780300000016 (Retail price: $17)

Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, Vol. 1, trans George Bull, Penguin Classics, 1988. (Excellent and entertaining biographies of Renaissance artists; also reveals point of view of Maniera artist.)
ISBN: 9780140445008 (Retail price: $15)

Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, Vol. 2, trans George Bull, Penguin Classics, 1988. (Excellent and entertaining biographies of Renaissance artists; also reveals point of view of Maniera artist.)
ISBN: 9780140444605 (Retail price: $15)

Giorgio Vasari, On Technique, trans. Louisa Maclehose, Dover Publications, New York, 1960. (Describes techniques used by 16th-century artists and craftsmen in detail, written as introduction to Vasari's Lives.)
ISBN: 9780486207179 (Retail price: $17.95)

Ascanio Condivi, The Life of Michelangelo, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. (Famous biography of Michelangelo by one of his pupils, almost an autobiography.)
ISBN: 9780271018539 (Retail price: $32.95)

Benvenuto Cellini, Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini, Create Space Independent Publishing Platform, 2013. (Renowned autobiography by this proud goldsmith and sculptor, also interesting mirror of complex history of time.)
ISBN: 9781470067069 (Retail price: 10.99)

Benvenuto Cellini, The Treatises of Benvenuto Cellini on Goldsmithing and Sculpture, trans., C.R. Ashbee, Kessinger Publishing, 2010.
ISBN: 9781162938875 (Retail price: $19.95)

Elizabeth Holt, A Documentary History of Art, vol. 1, The Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Princeton University Press, 1982.
ISBN: 9780691003337 (Retail price: $31.95)

Elizabeth Holt, A Documentary History of Art, vol. 2, Michelangelo and the Mannerists; the Baroque and the Eighteenth Century, Princeton University Press, 1982.
ISBN: 9780691003443 (Retail price: $31.95)

Carlo Cesare Malvasia, The Life of Guido Reni, trans. Catherine and Robert Enggass, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1980. (Important biography of this famous Bolognese Baroque painter.)
ISBN: 9780271002644 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

The Bible, Old and New Testaments, Thomas Nelson, 1976.
ISBN: 9780840705754 (Retail price: $34.99)

Jacobus of  Voragine, The Golden Legend, Vol. 1, trans. William Ryan, Princeton University Press, 1993. (Written by medieval bishop of Genoa, brings together oral traditions elaborating on Bible and telling lives of saints; was often used as a source by painters and sculptors throughout the Renaissance.)
ISBN: 9780691001531 (Retail price: $37.50)

Jacobus of  Voragine, The Golden Legend, Vol. 2, trans. William Ryan, Princeton University Press, 1993. (Written by a medieval bishop of Genoa, brings together oral traditions elaborating on Bible and telling lives of saints; was often used as a source by painters and sculptors throughout the Renaissance.)
ISBN: 9780691001548 (Retail price: $37.50)

George Ferguson, Signs and Symbols in Christian Art, Oxford University Press, 1966. (Concise explanation of Christian subject matter and symbolism.)
ISBN: 9780195014327 (Retail price: $19.99)

Edith Hamilton, Mythology, Rebound by Sagebrush, 1999. (A classic book on Greco-Roman myths.)
ISBN: 9780881030341(Retail price: $20.85)

James Hall and Kenneth Clark, Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, Richard D Irwin, 1985. (Excellent summary of Christian and mythological subject matter and symbolism.)
ISBN: 9780719541476 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Erwin Panofsky, Studies in Iconology, Humanistic Themes in the Art of the Renaissance, Westview Press, 1972. (First published in 1939, remains an excellent consideration of Renaissance humanism, for example neo-Platonism as reflected in the art of Michelangelo and Titian.)
ISBN: 9780064300254 (Retail price: $55)

Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, Penguin Classics, 1990. (Still fundamental to our concept of the Renaissance.)
ISBN: 9780140445343 (Retail price: $17)

J.H. Plumb, The Italian Renaissance, Mariner Books, 2001. (A nice summary of the period.)
ISBN: 9780618127382 (Retail price: $16)

Gene Brucker, Renaissance Florence, University of California Press, 1983. (Excellent history of Renaissance Florence.)
ISBN: 9780520046955 (Retail price: $28.95)

Christopher Hibbert, The Rise and Fall of the House of Medici, Penguin, 1979. (Excellent book on the Medici.)
ISBN: 9780140050905 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Eric Cochrane, Florence in the Forgotten Centuries, 1527-1800, A History of Florence and the Florentines in the Age of the Grand Dukes,  University of Chicago Press, 2013.
ISBN: 9780226111513 (Retail price: $35)

General Studies of the Periods considered from social/historical viewpoint
Arnold Hauser, The Social History of Art, vol. 2, Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque, Routledge, 1999.
ISBN: 9780415199469 (Retail price: $41.95)

Michael Levy, High Renaissance, Style and Civilization series, Penguin Books, 1978.
ISBN: 9780140137583 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

John Shearman, Mannerism, Style and Civilization series, Penguin Books, 1991.
ISBN: 9780140137590 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

John Rupert Martin, Baroque, Style and Civilization series, Penguin Books, 1991. (All three Style and Civilization series are excellent studies of the periods covered in relation to the society of the time.)
ISBN: 9780140153637 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Monographs and Studies of Specific Periods from Point of View of Style
S.J. Freedberg, Painting in Italy, 1500-1600, Pelican History of Art, Yale University Press, 1993. (Most thorough coverage of painting of 1500's)
ISBN: 9780300055870 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

S.J. Freedberg, Painting of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence, Vol. 1, Text, Icon Editions, Harper and Row, 1972. (Very thorough coverage of High Renaissance painting from point of view of style.)
ISBN: 9780064300131 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

S.J. Freedberg, Painting of the High Renaissance in Rome and Florence, Vol. 2, Plates, Icon Editions, Harper and Row, 1972.
ISBN: 9780064300148 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Walter Friedlander, Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting, first published in 1925, Columbia University Press, 1990.
ISBN: 9780231083881 (Retail price: $30)

Arnold Hauser, Mannerism, The Crisis of the Renaissance and the Origin of Modern Art, Belknap Press, Harvard, 1986.
ISBN: 9780674548152 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Heinrich Wölfflin, Renaissance and Baroque, trans., Kathrin Simon, Cornell Paperbacks, 1967, first published in 1888. (Still an important definition of fundamental differences in style between Renaissance and Baroque.)
ISBN: 9780801490460 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Peter Murray, The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1969.
ISBN: 9780500200940 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Rudolf Wittkower, Architectural Principles in the age of Humanism, W.W.Norton, 1971.
ISBN: 9780393005998 (Retail price: $18.95)

John Pope-Hennessy, Italian High Renaissance and Baroque Sculpture, Phaidon, 1970.
ISBN: 0714814601 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Charles Seymour Jr., Michelangelo's "David": a Search for IdentityW.W.Norton, 1974.
ISBN: 9780393007350 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

A.Victor Coonin, From Marble to Flesh, The Biography of Michelangelo’s David, The Florentine Press, 2014. (Excellent new study of Michelangelo’s most famous statue.)
ISBN: 9788897696025 (Retail price: €25)

Charles Seymour Jr., ed., Michelangelo: The Sistine Chapel Ceiling, W.W.Norton, 1972.
ISBN: 9780393098891 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo, Penguin Books, 1978. (Best short monograph on  Michelangelo.)
ISBN: 9780140220223 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

James Ackerman, The Architecture of Michelangelo, University of Chicago Press, 1986.
ISBN: 9780226002408 (Retail price: $32.50)

William Wallace, Michelangelo at San Lorenzo, the Genius as Entrepreneur, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
ISBN: 9780521410212 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Robert Liebert, Michelangelo: A Psychoanalytical Study of his Life and Images, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, 1983. (An interesting psychoanalytical study of Michelangelo.)
ISBN: 9780300027938 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Nathan Leites, Art and Life, Aspects of Michelangelo, New York Univ. Press, 1986. (Another psychoanalytical study of Michelangelo.)
ISBN: 9780814750216 (To Be Determined)

Kenneth Clark, Leonardo da Vinci, Penguin, 1989. (A classic Leonardo monograph.) 
ISBN: 9780140169829 (Retail price: $21.95)

J.P. Richter, ed., The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, 2 vols., CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.
ISBN: 9781475071696 (Retail price: $12.49)

Martin Kemp, ed., Leonardo on Painting, Yale University Press, 1989.
ISBN: 9780300045093 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Sigmund Freud, Leonardo da Vinci: A Memory of His Childhood, Ark Paperbacks, 1984.
ISBN: 9780744800098 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, Raphael, Yale University Press, 1983. (Excellent Raphael monograph.)
ISBN: 9780300040524 (Retail price: $45)

Ludwig H. Heydenreich and Wolfgang Lotz, Architecture in Italy 1400 to 1600, Yale University Press, 1996.
ISBN: 9780300064674 (Retail price: $35)

David Ekserdjian, Correggio, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1997.
ISBN: 9780300072990 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Johannes Wilde, Venetian Art from Bellini to Titian, Oxford University Press, 1974.
ISBN:  9780198173311 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Rona Goffen, ed., Titian’s Venus of  Urbino, Cambridge University Press, 1997. (Excellent series of essays on this famous and infamous painting.)
ISBN: 9780521449007 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

James S. Ackerman, Palladio, the Architect and Society, Penguin Books, 1987.
ISBN: 9780140208450 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

John Shearman, "Pontormo's Altarpiece in S. Felicità," Charleton Lectures, Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1971.
ISBN: 9780900565298 (Out of print)

Janet Cox-Rearick, Dynasty and Destiny in Medici Art: Pontormo, Leo X, and the two Cosimos, Princeton: Princeton U. Press, 1984.
ISBN: 9780691040233 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

David Franklin, Rosso in Italy, The Italian Career of Rosso Fiorentino, Yale University Press, 1994.
ISBN: 9780300058932 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

David Franklin, The Art of Parmigianino, Yale University Press, 2004.
ISBN: 9780300103571 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Charles McCorquodale, Bronzino, Chaucer Press, 2006.
ISBN: 9781904449485 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Margaret A. Gallucci, Benvenuto Cellini: Sexuality, Masculinity, and Artistic Identity in Renaissance Italy, New York, Macmillan, 2003.
ISBN: 9781403968968 (Retail price: $38)

Charles Avery, Giambologna, The Complete Sculpture, Phaidon Press, 1993.
ISBN: 9780714829531 (Retail price: $39.95)

Charles Dempsey, Annibale Carracci and the Beginnings of the Baroque Style, J.J. Augustin Glückstadt, 1977. (Best description of Annibale Carracci's work and its importance in beginning of Baroque period.)
ISBN: 9780686923343 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Walter Friedlander, Caravaggio Studies, Princeton University Press, 1975. (Excellent study of this pivotal master.)
ISBN: 9780691003085 (Out of print)

Howard Hibbard, Caravaggio, Icon editions, Harper and Row, 1985. (Another excellent Caravaggio monograph.)
ISBN: 9780064301282 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Roberta Lapucci, Caravaggio e l’ottica, Caravaggio and Optics, Restart, 2005. (Presents new discoveries about Caravaggio’s technique and working methods.)
ISBN: 8887815402 (Retail price: €15)

Mary Garrard, Artemisia Gentileschi: the Image of the Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art, Princeton, 1989. (The first major monograph on this powerful female artist of the early Baroque.)
ISBN: 9780691002859 (Retail price: $52.50)

Howard Hibbard, Bernini, Penguin, 1965. (Best short monograph on Bernini.)
ISBN: 9780140207019 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Marcia Hall, Renovation and Counter-Reformation, Vasari and Duke Cosimo in Sta. Maria Novella and Sta. Croce, 1565-1577, Oxford, Clarendon, 1979.
ISBN: 9780198173526 (Out of print)

Malcolm Campbell, Pietro da Cortona at the Pitti Palace, A Study of the Planetary Rooms and Related Projects, Princeton, 1977. (Excellent study of Pietro da Cortona's work at Palazzo Pitti.)
ISBN: 9780691038919 (Out of print)

Rudolf Wittkower, Studies in the Italian Baroque, Westview Press, 1975. (unites several brillliant essays on major Baroque artists such as Bernini and Borromini.)
ISBN: 9780891585060 (Retail price: To Be Determined)

Guidebooks and Novels
Eve Borsook, Companion Guide to Florence, Companion Guides, 2000. (Excellent guide to Florence.)
ISBN: 9781900639194 (Retail price: $34.95)

Irving Stone, The Agony and the Ecstasy, Signet, 1987. (Though it contains a lot of fiction, students enjoy the lively narration and the descriptions of Florence.)
ISBN: 9780451171351 (Retail price: $9.99)

Note:   You may want to purchase some of the supplementary readings. English language books can be found in the Paperback Exchange, Via delle Oche 4R.  The Paperback Exchange is also stocked with textbooks, should you want to purchase a Hartt text, and/or a Wittkower text (which we use at end of semester). In addition you can go to other libraries here in Florence for research for your term papers, for example that of the art history department of the University of Florence on the Via della Pergola. Ask SACI librarians for more information on other libraries here in Florence, as those of the British Institute and the Dutch Institute. We also have access to articles in scholarly periodicals on the web through JSTOR. 


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